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Project Human Resource Management - process required to make the most effective use of the people involved with the project

Responsibility Assignment Matrix (RAM)
– Show who does what (x=person, y=phase). The most important feature of the RAM is the participatory development process involving all stakeholders. Show who is participant, who is accountable, who handles reviews, who provides input and who must sign off on specific work packages or project phases.

Linear Responsibility Chart (LRC) – identifying responsibility, assignments by work packages and action required.  Also referred to as RAM.

Organizational Breakdown Structure (ORS) - A depiction of the project organization arranged so as to relate work packages to organization units.

Resources Histogram – often part of Staffing Management plans; shows resource usage (e.g. staff hours) per time period (e.g. week, month) of a specific job function.

Rewards and Recognition Systems  -- to be effective, must make the link between performance and reward clear, explicit and achievable.
Types of Power 
Legitimate (Formal)Derived from formal position
CoercivePredicated on fear
RewardInvolves positive reinforcement and ability to award something of valueProject often needs their own rewards system to affect employee performance. Used correctly, bring the team’s goals and objectives in line with each other and with the project.
ExpertHeld in esteem because of special knowledge or skill (requires time)
ReferentAbility to influence others through charisma, personality, etc.
The best forms of power are generally Reward and Expert 
Conflict Management
Problem Solving / ConfrontationAddress conflict directly in problem solving mode     [win/win]
CompromisingBargaining and searching for solutions neither party wins but each gain some satisfaction     [lose/lose] this is very rarely a good way to resolve technical issues.
SmoothingDe-emphasize differences and emphasize commonalities; friendly but avoids solving root causes; delaying(e.g. Manager says an issue is valid but doesn’t think it will be a big problem later)
Withdrawal (Ignoring)Retreating from actual or potential disagreement; delaying  (e.g. “Just document the problem”)
ForcingExerting one’s viewpoint; a last resort     [win/lose] (e.g. “Call the customer and demand that you receive the approval today.”
CollaboratingInvolves incorporating multiple ideas and viewpoints from people with different perspectives and offers a good opportunity to learn from others (good when project is too important to be compromised)
Priorities11  +
Admin Procedures23   
Technical Issues  2 +
Personnel Resources  33+
Personality Conflict   2 
 3 steps of problem solving: 1.       Analyze the situation / Document the situation2.       Develop alternatives with the team3.       Go to management 
Motivational Theory:  Content & Process TheoriesContent: “What” energizes, directs behavior –
  1. Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Theory (Physiological, Safety, Social/Belonging, Esteem, Self-Actualization)
  2. Hertzberg’s Motivator/Hygiene Theories (Motivator: Self-Actualization, Esteem; Hygiene: Social, Safety, Physiological)
Process: “How” personal factors influence behavior1.       McGregor’s Theory X and Theory Y (X: Assumes people lack ambition, dislike responsibility, are inherently self-centered and are not very bright; motivate by reward and punishment.  Y: Assumes people become lazy w/o recognition, will accept responsibility, can become self-motivated and exercise self-control; motivate by removing obstacles and providing self-directed environment.)2.       Ouchi’s Theory Z/Japanese Theory  (focus on team, company; usually lifetime employment, collective decision making) 
Other Motivational Theories:Behaviorism – people behavior can be modified through manipulation of rewards and punishments

Expectancy Theory – Motivation is explained in terms of expectations that people have about (1) their ability to perform effectively on the job, (2) the rewards they might obtain if they do perform effectively and (3) the value or degree of satisfaction they anticipate from those rewards.

MBO – More support to team, not more power (remain to PM)

Leadership Theories:McGregor – Theory X (employee lack ambition) and Theory Y (org structure are responsible for motivation)

Tannenabaum-Schmidt model – Continuum of leadership styles between the autocratic and participative styles

Blake and Mouton – ref to managerial grid (Concern for People Vs Concern for Production), whereas 1,1 is laissez faire management, 1,9 is Country Club management, 9,1 is Task oriented management, 5,5 is Compromise management and 9,9 is team management. 
Forms of Organization
FunctionalGroup’s people by specialization.  Project manager has no formal authority of resources and must rely on informal power structure and his own interpersonal skills to obtain resource commitments from functional managers.
Project ExpeditorRetains functional but adds a Project Expeditor who serves as a communications link and coordinator for the project across functional units
Project CoordinatorSimilar to Project Expeditor except the Coordinator reports to a higher level manager and has some authority to assign work
Weak MatrixVertical functional lines of authority maintained with a relatively permanent horizontal structure containing managers for various projects.  Balance of power leans toward the Functional Manager. Can cause a project to fall behind because functional managers are pulling resources away to perform non-project related tasks. The Project Manager may be able to make resource decision on his own but not technical decision.
Strong MatrixSame as Weak except that the balance of power leans towards the Project Manager
ProjectizedA separate, vertical structure is established for each project. All the project team members report directly and solely to the project manager.
 **Memorize  PMBOK “Organizational Structure Influence on Projects” Team building is most difficult in a matrix organization. Its main purpose is to improve team performance.Team development is based on the individual development of each member.
Leadership Styles 
AutocraticPM makes decision without soliciting information from team
ConsultiveIntensive information solicited; PM makes decision
ConsensusTeam makes decision; open discussion and information gathering by team
ShareholderLittle or no information exchange; team has ultimate authority for final decision
Roles of the Project ManagerFunctions of the Project Manager
   Integrator   Planning
   Communicator   Organizing
   Team Leader   Leading
   Decision Maker   Controlling
   Climate Creator/Builder 

·         Staffing Management Plan – describes when resources will be brought into and taken off the project.
·         Employee Record Update – as part of closure, the project manager should update employee’s record with the new skills acquired.

Resource calendar –
identifies period when work is allowed.
Human Resourcepmp_test9 | 07 Feb : 21:10
[ PMPBest NewBie ]
Comments: 1

Registered: 06 Feb : 22:36
Reply to this
Good material

Human Resourcevanga | 03 Apr : 21:09
[ PMPBest NewBie ]
Comments: 1

Registered: 06 Mar : 15:23
Reply to this
very helpful clear doc.

thank you

Human Resourcechakra golla | 08 Apr : 08:01
[ PMPBest NewBie ]
Comments: 1

Registered: 13 Mar : 12:31
Reply to this
golld information . thanks

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The Project Manager blog is about the many project management tools that the modern day project manager has at their disposal in planning projects.

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